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#1 User is offline   aotsukisho 

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Posted 11 February 2010 - 03:17 PM

first exam


1) The psychodynamic perspective emphasizes
A. the use of animal models of abnormal behavior.
B. observing workplace productivity.
> C. treating mental disorders.
D. creating surveys to measure behavior.
E. developing useful experiments to study the mind.

2) ____ is the interdisciplinary field involving biologists, psychologists, computer scientists, and chemists.
A. Eclecticism
B. Human factors
> C. Neuroscience
D. Evolutionology
E. Psychiatry

3) Food, sex, and water are considered examples of
A. conditioned stimuli.
B. continuous reinforcers.
C. secondary reinforcers.
D. intermittent reinforcers.
> E. primary reinforcers.

4) A psychologist who studies how hormones affect a person's behavior is using the ____ view.
A. functional
B. deterministic
> C. biological
D. evolutionary
E. humanistic

5) The principles of psychodynamics were first outlined by
A. Jean Piaget.
> B. Sigmund Freud.
C. Aristotle.
D. B.F. Skinner.
E. William James.

6) Learning always occurs as a result of
A. classical conditioning.
B. internal changes.
> C. experience.
D. changing our emotions.
E. changes in the environment.

7) In operant conditioning, extinction involves
> A. witholding reinforcement.
B. an increase in negative reinforcement.
C. adding new punishments.
D. consistent, unpleasant punishments.
E. unpredictable reinforcement.

8) Which of the following is controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
A. Reasoning
B. Running
C. Reaching
D. Reading
> E. Respiration

9) One major difference between psychiatry and psychology is that psychiatry tends to focus on
A. large group of specialties.
B. groups of people.
> C. medical issues.
D. the importance of perception for human function.
E. case research.

10) In an experiment, the independant variable is always
A. changed by the subjects.
B. created by other researchers.
> C. controlled by the researcher.
D. considered by the control group.
E. confounded by other variables.

11) Which scanning method produces a computerized image of X rays that have been passed through the brain at various angles?
A. Psychosurgery
B. PET scanning
C. Neurosurgery
> D. CT scanning
E. MRI scanning

12) ____ psychologist would be most likely to help individuals overcome their depression.
A. industrial/organizational (I/O)
B. social
C. school
D. engineering
> E. clinical

13) During synaptic transmission, the ____ in the axon is converted into a(n) ____ that can traverse the synaptic gap.
A. chemical message; electrical impulse
> B. electrical impulse; chemical message
C. ionic impulse; electrical impulse
D. myuelin sheath; electrical impulse
E. myelin sheath; chemical message

14) The most effective form of punishment usually involves
A. attacks on character.
B. delayed and inconsistent consequences.
C. intense physical pain.
D. psychological pain.
> E. penalties, such as loss of privelages.

15) Negative reinforcement involves
> A. removal of an aversive stimulus.
B. decreasing the likelihood of certain future behaviors.
C. providing an unpleasant stimulus periodically through the day.
D. the learning of a new response.
E. pairing an old reflex with a new stimulus.

16) Empirical investigation is
A. based on random coding of data.
B. always found to be accurate.
> C. data gathered directly by an observer.
D. a study that makes logical sense.
E. biased by random procedures.

17) The "master gland" is a term that refers to the
A. thalamus.
> B. pituitary gland.
C. thyroid gland.
D. hypothalamus.
> E. adrenal gland.

18) The peripheral nervous system is comprised of
A. the autonomic nervous sytem and the central nervous system.
B. the parasympathetic nervous system and the central nervous system.
C. the somatic nervous system and the sympathetic division.
D. the autonomic nervous system and the sympathetic division.
> E. the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.

19) Neural signals travel along a neuron in what order?
A. Dendrite, axon, soma, terminal button
B. Terminal button, soma, dendrite, axon
> C. Dendrite, soma, axon, terminal button
D. Axon, soma, dendrite, terminal button
E. Axon, dendrite, soma, terminal button

20) For Pavlov, a tone is to food as
> A. a conditioned simulus (CS) is to an unconditioned stimulus (UCS).
B. a conditioned response (CR) is to an operant stimulus (OR).
C. an orienting response (OR) is to a conditioned stimulus (CS).
D. a neutral stimulus (NS) is to a conditioned response (CR).
E. an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is to an unconditioned response (UCR).

21) "Fight or flight" behavior is associated with
A. interneurons.
B. the parasympathetic division.
C. motor neurons.
D. the somatic nervous system.
> E. the sympathetic division.

22) The two main types of behavioral learning are
A. reflexive responses and shaping.
B. reinforcement and insight leraning.
C. social learning and observational learning.
D. insight learning and operant conditioning.
> E. classical conditionng and operant conditioning.

23) Which of the following is NOT an example of an operant?
A. One-month-old Jamie sucks on a nipple in order to hear her mother's voice.
B. A rat presses a lever to receive a food pellet.
C. Sam tells a joke that has previously evoked much laughter.
> D. A dog salivates after seeing a bowl of meat.
E. Abe repeatedly presses a button on a toy, because he likes the loud sound it makes.

24) B.F. Skinner was a radical behaviorist who refused to
A. conduct research with animals other than humans.
> B. speculate about what happenes inside an organism.
C. understand how it was possible for people to change.
D. accept that individuals can change over time.
E. believe that observation tells us anything about human nature.

25) A cognitive psychologist has been studying aggression in teens. Which of the following is most likely to be the title of his latest study?
A. "The Use of Medications to Control Aggression in Teens"
B. "The Consequences of Teen Violence"
C. "The Family Dynamics of Violent Teens"
D. "Social Pressures That Produce Violent Teens"
> E. "The Reasons Why Teens Say They Act Violently"

26) The linkage between a UCS and the UCR requires
A. the individual must receive either punishment or reinforcement.
B. that the dog salivates at the sound of the bell.
> C. no learning.
D. a critical impact of insight.
E. that the person must be hungry.

27) Based on his classroom experiences, Dr. New Castle believes that students sitting in the front row of the classroom get higher grades than those sitting in rows further back. His belief is an example of
A. correlation coefficient.
B. dependant variable.
> C. hypothesis.
D. theory
E. stimulus event.

28) Which of the following is true of the difference between operant and classical conditioning?
A. Classical conditioning requires a stimulus that follows the UCR.
B. Classical conditioning is used to learn new useful behaviors.
C. Operant conditioning involves the modification of an old reflex.
D. Food is presented after the response in classical conditioning.
> E. Food is presented before the response in classical conditioning.

29) A punisher is an aversive consequence that
A. decreases the probability of shaping by successive approximations.
B. occurs on a consistent and predictable basis.
C. is withheld to increase the probability of the response over time.
> D. weakens the behavior it follows.
E. withholds negative reinforcers.

30) A male child inherits ____ from their fathers.
A. an X chromosome
B. no chromosomes
> C. a Y chromosome
D. either an X or a Y chromosome
E. both an X and a Y chromosome

31) Insight learning involves
> A. the perception of familiar objects in new forms or relationships.
B. the process of assimilation.
C. the development of abstract concepts.
D. the integration of unfamiliar objects into familiar patterns.
E. a strategy of vicarious trial-and-error.

32) As a marine biologist, you are trying to teach a dolphin to jump over a bar. At first, you reward the dolphin every time it swims near the bar. Then, you only reward her when she emerges from the water near the bar. Eventually, you reward the dolphin each time she jumps out of the water. Then, you only reward the dolphin when she jumps over the bar. This technique is an example of
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. classical conditioning.
C. discrimination.
D. positive punishment.
> E. shaping.

33) Dr. Heineken is an industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologist. Thus, she is most likely to do which of the following?
A. Diagnose learning disabilities within a school district.
B. Conduct experiments to determine which studying strategies work best.
C. Help individuals who have eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa.
> D. Help companies determine which questions to ask job candidates.
E. Assist in the design of easy-to-use software for home computer usage.

34) The genetic structure you inherited from your parents is referred to as your
A. genomic identity.
B. phenotype.
> C. genotype.
D. genetic hardiness.
E. chromotype.

35) Disturbances in the neurotransmitter ____ can produce memory problems.
> A. acetylcholine
C. neorepinepihrine
D. serotonin
E. glutamate

36) Robert's dog, Marley, runs to Robert when he says "Come". If one day, Marley comes running when Roberts says "Dumb", we might say that Marley has demonstrated
A. social learning
B. spontaneous recovery.
C. insight learning.
> D. stimulus generalization.
E. intermittent reinforcement.

37) A formal definition of psychology is as the scientific study of
> A. the behavior of individuals and their mental processes.
B. human nature.
C. groups of people.
D. theories and research methods.
E. the process of learning and modfying behavioral reflexes.

38) The central nervous system is comprisded of all the neurons in the ____ and the ____.
> A. brain; spinal cord
B. glands; spinal cord
C. brain; skeletal muscles
D. muscles; terminal buttons
E. axons; dendrites

39) Any observable, voluntary behavior that is emitted by an organism to affect the environment is called a(n)
A. negative reinforcer.
> B. operant.
C. conditioned response.
D. intermittent variable.
E. positive reinforcer.

40) A practical use of aversive conditioning by John Garcia was to
A. alter people's eating preferences for lamb.
B. cause people to look forward to receiving chemotherapy.
C. teach children to eat their green vegetables.
> D. dissuade wild coyotes from attacking sheep.
E. make Little Albert cry at the sight of a white mouse.

41) John B. Watson founded the first formal psychology laboratory.

42) The first step of the scientific method involves performing a controlled test of the impact of the independant variable on the data.

43) In an experiment, it is assumed that changes in the independant variable will produce changes in the dependant variable.

44) Dendrites release chemical transmitters into the synaptic cleft.

45) The hippocampus is critical for preserving memories.

46) Surgical removal of the amygdala will increase aggression in humans.

47) Under most conditions, the CS and the UCS must be paired at least several times before the CS reliably elicits the CR.

48) In the process of "extinction", thye CS is repeatedly presented without being followed by the UCS.

49) Operant behavior is based on autonmatic reflex actions.

50) Reinforcers always follow and strengthen a response.


#2 User is offline   Quado 

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Posted 02 September 2010 - 01:11 AM

Just wanted to say thanks. Im now taking PSY 100 and am using this as an extra study guide. But, its kinda depressing cause i don't know a good chunk of it. But, it gives me a bearing as im taking the course. Oh, btw... was your teacher liberal or conservative? Just wondering if that makes a difference or not?

#3 User is offline   aotsukisho 

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Posted 02 September 2010 - 02:56 AM

it's ok. our teacher was extremely liberal, he dressed like a pimp. lol

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